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Ophthalmology is a medical speciality that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders related to the eyes and visual system. Ophthalmologists are medical doctors who specialize in eye care, providing a range of services from routine eye examinations to complex surgical procedures. Here are key aspects of ophthalmology:

Common Conditions and Treatments:

    1. Refractive Errors:

  • Myopia (Nearsightedness), Hyperopia (Farsightedness), and Astigmatism: Corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery (e.g., LASIK).

    2. Cataracts:

  • Cataract Surgery: Removal of the cloudy lens and replacement with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL).

    3. Glaucoma:

  • Medications: Eye drops or oral medications to reduce intraocular pressure.
  • Laser Surgery: Procedures like trabeculoplasty or iridotomy.
  • Conventional Surgery: Trabeculectomy or shunt implantation to improve fluid drainage.

    4. Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD):

  • Anti-VEGF Injections: Medications injected into the eye to slow disease progression.
  • Photodynamic Therapy (PDT): Laser treatment for certain types of AMD.

    5. Diabetic Retinopathy:

  • Laser Photocoagulation: Used to seal leaking blood vessels.
  • Anti-VEGF Injections: Similar to AMD treatment.

    6. Retinal Detachment:

  • Surgery: Various surgical procedures to reattach the retina.

    7. Corneal Diseases:

  • Corneal Transplant (Keratoplasty): Replacement of a damaged or diseased cornea with a donor cornea.

    8. Strabismus:

  • Eye Muscle Surgery: Corrective surgery to align misaligned eyes.

Ophthalmic Procedures:

    1. Cataract Surgery:

  • Phacoemulsification: Ultrasonic energy is used to break up and remove the cloudy lens.

    2. Laser Eye Surgery (Refractive Surgery):

  • LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis): Reshaping the cornea to correct refractive errors.

    3. Vitrectomy:

  • Removal of Vitreous Gel: Used for conditions like retinal detachment or vitreous haemorrhage.

    4. Corneal Surgery:

  • Corneal Transplant: Replacement of damaged cornea with healthy donor tissue.

    5. Glaucoma Surgery:

  • Trabeculectomy: Creates a new drainage channel for intraocular fluid.
  • Shunt Implantation: Placement of a drainage device to manage intraocular pressure.

Pediatric Ophthalmology:

    1. Strabismus (Crossed Eyes):

  • Eye Muscle Surgery: Corrective surgery to align misaligned eyes in children.

    2. Amblyopia (Lazy Eye):

  • Patch Therapy: Occlusion of the stronger eye to encourage visual development in the weaker eye.

Diagnostic Tools:

  1. Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior structures of the eye using an ophthalmoscope.
  2. Tonometry: Measurement of intraocular pressure.
  3. Visual Field Testing: Assessment of peripheral vision.
  4. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): Imaging technique for detailed cross-sectional views of the retina.

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